Photo courtesy of Rob Shenk
For a DBA, starting up and shutting down of oracle database is a routine and basic operation. Sometimes Linux administrator or programmer may end-up doing some basic DBA operations on development database. So, it is important for non-DBAs to understand some basic database administration activities.
In this article, let us review how to start and stop an oracle database.
How To Startup Oracle Database
1. Login to the system with oracle username
Typical oracle installation will have oracle as username and dba as group. On Linux, do su to oracle as shown below.
$ su - oracle
2. Connect to oracle sysdba
Make sure ORACLE_SID and ORACLE_HOME are set properly as shown below.
$ env | grep ORA ORACLE_SID=DEVDB ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/10.2.0
You can connect using either “/ as sysdba” or an oracle account that has DBA privilege.
$ sqlplus '/ as sysdba' SQL*Plus: Release 10.2.0.3.0 - Production on Sun Jan 18 11:11:28 2009 Copyright (c) 1982, 2006, Oracle. All Rights Reserved. Connected to: Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition Release 10.2.0.3.0 - Production With the Partitioning and Data Mining options SQL>
3. Start Oracle Database
The default SPFILE (server parameter file) is located under $ORACLE_HOME/dbs. Oracle will use this SPFILE during startup, if you don’t specify PFILE.
Oracle will look for the parameter file in the following order under $ORACLE_HOME/dbs. If any one of them exist, it will use that particular parameter file.
Type “startup” at the SQL command prompt to startup the database as shown below.
SQL> startup ORACLE instance started. Total System Global Area 812529152 bytes Fixed Size 2264280 bytes Variable Size 960781800 bytes Database Buffers 54654432 bytes Redo Buffers 3498640 bytes Database mounted. Database opened. SQL>
If you want to startup Oracle with PFILE, pass it as a parameter as shown below.
SQL> STARTUP PFILE=/u01/app/oracle/product/10.2.0/dbs/init.ora
How To Shutdown Oracle Database
Following three methods are available to shutdown the oracle database:
- Normal Shutdown
- Shutdown Immediate
- Shutdown Abort
1. Normal Shutdown
During normal shutdown, before the oracle database is shut down, oracle will wait for all active users to disconnect their sessions. As the parameter name (normal) suggest, use this option to shutdown the database under normal conditions.
SQL> shutdown Database closed. Database dismounted. ORACLE instance shut down. SQL>
2. Shutdown Immediate
During immediate shutdown, before the oracle database is shut down, oracle will rollback active transaction and disconnect all active users. Use this option when there is a problem with your database and you don’t have enough time to request users to log-off.
SQL> shutdown immediate; Database closed. Database dismounted. ORACLE instance shut down. SQL>
3. Shutdown Abort
During shutdown abort, before the oracle database is shutdown, all user sessions will be terminated immediately. Uncomitted transactions will not be rolled back. Use this option only during emergency situations when the “shutdown” and “shutdown immediate” doesn’t work.
$ sqlplus '/ as sysdba' SQL*Plus: Release 10.2.0.3.0 - Production on Sun Jan 18 11:11:33 2009 Copyright (c) 1982, 2006, Oracle. All Rights Reserved. Connected to an idle instance. SQL> shutdown abort ORACLE instance shut down. SQL>