In a typical scenario, during the boot process, the run-level system startup scripts are executed one-by-one.
A particular run level startup script will not execute until the previous script is executed completely. If a particular service during the startup is hanging for some reason, it might take a while before it times-out and move on to the next startup script.
Startpar utility is used to run multiple run-level scripts in parallel. This helps to speed up the boot process of your server.
Apart from the default route, you can also configure additional routes.
For example, your server you might have 2 interfaces (eth0 and eth1). By default, all the traffic is routed through interface eth0 irrespective of what IP address you have configured on eth1.
To route the incoming and outgoing traffic through eth1, other than the default route (eth0), you also need to add additional routes for eth1 .
For Debian based systems like Ubuntu, you can use aptitude command for package management from the command line.
This article explains several aptitude command examples including the following:
- Install a specific version of a package
- Install multiple packages using pattern
- Search for a package using pattern
- Get packages under a section
- Don’t update a specific package (Using hold and keep)
- Mark a package with a specific install type
- Perform system update
- Perform safe upgrade
insserv command is used to control the start and stop order of the services that are on a Linux system.
It enables an installed system init script (boot script) by reading comment header of the init script and calculating the dependencies between all the scripts.
Insserv scans for the system facilities in the configuration file /etc/insserv.conf and the directory /etc/insserv.conf.d.
Audacity is an open source software for manipulating audio. The following are few important features of audacity:
- Record live audio
- Playback recorded audio/sound files
- Edit sound files by cut, copy & paste.
- Convert audio from one format to another
Apart from Linux you can also install Audacity on Windows and Mac OS X.
This article explains few essentials features of audacity with screenshots.
HPACUCLI stands for HP Array Configuration Utility CLI.
As the name suggests, this utility is for HP servers.
Hpacucli is used to create, delete and repair the logical and physical drives on the smart array controllers in HP servers.
NTP stands for Network Time Protocol.
It is used to synchronize the time on your Linux system with a centralized NTP server.
A local NTP server on the network can be synchronized with an external timing source to keep all the servers in your organization in-sync with an accurate time.
In Linux, using etherchannel bonding you can combine two or more physical network interfaces (NIC) together to create a virtual interface.
The IP address will be configured on this virtual interface. If one of the underlying physical adapters goes down, then the other physical adapter is used to handle the communication traffic.
The following are different types of etherchannel bonding modes: